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The photon with energy of hν15 is absorbed by a molecule, transferring it from a state with energy E to the excited condition of E1. The return transition can go straight (dashed line) or in the form of cascade process when various photons with energiya of hν54 are let out, hν42, hν21, and energy of the absorbed photon (hν can appear less total energy of the let-out photons (hν). Part of energy of a photon (it is transferred to the next molecules and it is spent for various intramolecular processes. Therefore equality is fair:

Lines of absorption in a range of atom are formed as a result of transition of atom from the power level corresponding to an unexcited condition of atom on lower level due to the energy received from out of. As the atom possesses quite certain, discrete values of energy, and length of waves of the radiated or absorbed light are quite defined. The more the difference of energiya of level of atom, the smaller wavelength is let out light.

The line spectrum of emission is explained with transition of the atom which is in wild spirits from the highest power level on lower. For example, upon transition from the second power level energy of atom decreases by the first on E2-E1=1,77 ; thus light photon with the wavelength equal is let out

Electrons on covers of K, L, and N are coupled (these covers are populated with couples of electrons with opposite focused backs) whereas on a cover of M there are unpaired electrons giving neskomponsirovanny backs — atom backs. The same, only in weaker degree, it is possible to tell and about any paramagnetic.

Continuous brass washer To. with the thickened rim it is put on steel axis A round which it can rotate in a brass ring. If to reel up on an axis a lace and ­ to pull it, the washer will come to fast rotation. ­ deepening by which all top can be put on a steel edge of a support has D on a ring R from below. If thus not to support the device a hand, it under the influence of force of a will overturn and will fall. If before taking away a hand, to bring the device into rotation, the top axis with its rings as if hangs in horizontal situation, and all system will turn round a vertical axis of a support. This rotation received the name of a precession. The precession arose as result of gravity and aspiration of the rotating top to keep the direction of an axis.

When heating the magnet loses the magnetic properties. There is temperature (Curie's temperature) at which the ferromagnetic absolutely degausses and turns into a paramagnetic. For iron this temperature is equal 770 °C.

But in many cases of number of positive and spin are not counterbalanced, then the atom has to backs and the corresponding magnetic moment. 6 illustrates the scheme of atom of iron.

The energy axis in this schedule is taken vertical, for a reference mark choose energy of atom when its electron is removed in infinity is zero level of energy of atom. As energy of atom of an orbitaln, all subsequent values of energy will be below zero level. An energy minimum (E1 =-13,53e atom corresponds to its unexcited state when the electron is in the orbit, closest to a kernel. Choose scale so that then it was easy to divide the piece corresponding to distance between levels E ∞ and E1 on 4, 9, 16 etc., equal parts. The image of values of energy of atom constructed thus in its various states is called power model of atom.