From the point of view of A. Gelen, the culture is the defining essence of the person, it "the second nature". The spiritual beginning is the cornerstone of culture. Thus, A. Gelen eventually comes besides to a conclusion about dualistic essence of the person.
As the valid human beginning it is necessary to consider such level of development live when production of instruments of labor turns into a special need without which there is impossible a life when it becomes an instrument for ensuring of collective activity.
Merge to eternity, in this or that form characteristic for all drevnevostochy philosophy, does not assume activity in realization of the personal beginning. Likening to the eternal and invariable absolute assumes static character, unconditional following of tradition and orientation of the person to respectful and careful attitude to the outside world, both natural, and social. Thus need of improvement of an interior was highlighted. In an extreme antiquity there is one of bases of east way of life - the requirement of the adaptation of the person to society, the state, senior on a rank or age.
The philosophy of Modern times is formed under the influence of development of the capitalist relations and blossoming of sciences, first of all mechanics, physics, mathematics, than the way to rational interpretation of human essence was open. Achievements of the exact sciences were reflected in a peculiar view of a human body as on the specific car which is started similar to a clockwork (the French philosophy of the XVIII century - Zh. O. Lametri, P. Golbakh, K. A. Helvetius, D. Diderot).
Socrates is considered by right as the founder not only the West European philosophy of the person, but also the founder of ethics. He first of all was interested in an interior, his soul and virtues. Socrates possesses a conclusion that "virtue is knowledge" therefore the person needs to learn essence of good and justice and then he will not make bad acts. The doctrine about human soul and reason takes the central place in sokratovsky philosophy, and the self-knowledge of the person acts in it as a main goal of philosophy.
A peculiar approach to determination of intrinsic qualities of the person is shown also by G. Plessner (1892-19 It addresses to separate distinctive abilities of the human individual, in particular, to features of his mentality.
Degree of understanding of a problem of the person as methodologically initial principle of philosophizing. In other words, as far as the philosopher realizes what exactly the person - the center, the criterion and the prime target of all philosophizing, as far as this principle is important.
But, perhaps, the most interesting and significant contribution to philosophical judgment of the person was made by the German philosopher I. Kant. Formation of one of anthropological programs, the first in the history of philosophy, is connected with his name. I. Kant proceeded from understanding of the person as the being belonging to two worlds at the same time - to the world of natural need and the world of moral freedom. It razgranichivayet anthropology in the "physiological" and "pragmatical" relations. The first investigates that the nature does of the person, the second - that the person as freely operating being, does or can and has to do of itself.
The philosophical anthropology is modern philosophical school which basic task is development of a problem of essence of the person. The German philosophers M. Sheller, A. Gelen, G. Plessner, E. Rottaker, G.-E. Herstenberg, etc. were the main representatives of this school.
The general guesses of F. Nietzsche that the person is not biological perfection became a basis for conclusions of philosophical anthropology, the person is something cancelled, biologically defective. However the modern philosophical anthropology is a difficult and inconsistent phenomenon in which the set of the schools which are competing with each other, and often representing so opposite opinions gets on what to allocate at them something the general, except attention to the person, very difficult.
In the XX century development of philosophical and philosophical and sociological problems of the person gained new intensity and was developed in many directions: existentialism, freydizm, neofreydizm, philosophical anthropology.