From the balneological procedures influencing skin different bathtubs are most widely used. Influence water of different temperature on the numerous nervous terminations (receptors) put in skin is the cornerstone of action of bathtubs. Irritations of skin thermoreceptors result reflex changes in the blood circulatory system, in intensity of processes of a metabolism in an organism. At reception of hot bathtubs blood supply of skin and the chronic inflammatory centers amplifies. As a result of strengthening of blood circulation in skin significant amounts of heat that conducts to increase of intensity of oxidizing processes and, in particular, to oxidation of the pathological products which are formed in the inflammatory centers and their removal from an organism, and also to acceleration of recovery processes in the pathological centers come to an organism from a bathtub. Improvement of blood supply of skin promotes also improvement of its physiological functions, in particular immunogenesis function.
The greatest gas saturation usually carbonic waters, the smallest – nitric possess that is explained by various solubility in waters of coal anhydride (CO and nitrogen (N. On degree of gas saturation 3 groups of waters (see the appendix can be allocated.
At external application thanks to chemical impact on skin the functional condition of its receptors changes, it is promoted also by influence of pressure upon skin of mass of water – a miscellaneous at various medicinal techniques - and its temperatures.
Waters of a high mineralization are used mainly for bathtubs. Brines are applied only to bathtubs, in the natural form (without dilution by fresh water) usually only at a mineralization no more than 120 - 150 g/l.
Except the main components of ionic and gas structure defining chemical type of waters. In many waters contains in the increased concentration these or those biologically active microcomponents causing sometimes the main medicinal properties of waters (for example,, in other cases the causing additional important features of effect of waters.
Biologically active agents containing in some waters, being soaked up from a digestive tract, have specific effect. So, iron prevents development of anemia, iodine stimulates oxidation-reduction processes in an organism, strengthens function of a thyroid gland, bromine promotes processes of braking of the central nervous system.
Waters of the Borjomi type – hydrocarbonate sodium, cold and warm, with a mineralization to 10 g/l. These waters use wide popularity as the most valuable drinking mineral waters and are applied in many resorts of the country.
Mineral waters, mainly low mineralization and the containing calcium ions, possess the expressed diuretichesky (diuretic) action and promote removal from kidneys, kidney a lokhanok and a bladder of bacteria, slime, sand and even small components.
Mineral waters — it is difficult solutions in which components are in a type of ions of not dissociated molecules, colloidal particles and the dissolved gases. They contain the same substances which are present at a human body, and their curative action consists in completion of the broken balance. The chemical composition of mineral waters is precisely known, and it can be reproduced in vitro, however medical effect of the natural mineral waters created due to washing away of chemical elements from geological breeds during the long period, to inadequately artificial waters.