Self-determination assumes both independence, and position definiteness, and the action program for its embodiment. The main condition providing operation of this mechanism. Its base is existence of the spheres of self-determination acting usually as the content of formation of outlook. Such spheres four – the person, society, the nature, the integrated products of human activity. Education has to provide harmony of the person with itself through determination of harmony by it with other people, society, the nature, human activity. Achievement of harmony - such is centuries the developed essence the loony., moral health of the person.
Freedom as action and independent creativity. The foundation of such understanding of freedom was laid by L. N. Tolstoy. He supports recognition of the rights of the child, intervention of the tutor in development of belief and character of children. The main emphasis is placed on naturally developing atmosphere of cooperation between the teacher and the pupil which completely excludes coercion. Fully these ideas are realized in K. N. Venttsel's concept. As a main objective of education he sees release of the child and submission of all positive data to it for development of his identity, his free personality. Speaking about the main method of education, K. N. Venttsel notes that this method has to be a release method in the child of a creative power, method of awakening and maintenance of spirit of search in it, creativity researches.
"The put-forward purpose – to provide to each school student basic education and culture as a basis for vital self-determination. The main objectives of pedagogical work are directed on formation of ability of the personality to cultural self-realization, self-organization and self-rehabilitation. The main directions of educational activity are reflected in target programs.
Basic components of culture: humanistic position and personal qualities; philosophical theories and creative thinking; experience of creative activity, justification of own activity as systems (didactic); culture of behavior, ways of self-development and self-control of the personality.
in collective – professional and labor, economic, organizing and administrative, communicative and other problems of education – formation of professional knowledge, abilities, economic, communicative culture and organizing abilities;
Modern educational concepts differ in aspiration to rely on universal values and civilized forms of activity in all spheres. To some extent are present at all concepts:
Thus, the analysis of various approaches to a problem of freedom showed that, despite an obshchepriznannost of category of freedom in various branches of science, its understanding, in particular, rather variably and reflects initial concepts of authors in pedagogics.
The special attention is deserved by the second group of tasks. It is impossible to formulate the nonviolent attitude towards other people if the pedagogics in the basis continues to remain on authoritative positions at the child. Therefore it is important that it was humanized itself educational process, since preschool institutions and finishing the higher school.
The frontage to universal values means return of pedagogical education to a culture bosom, its humanization, humanitarization, creation of the environmentally friendly cultural and educational environment, the attitude towards the pupil, as to the free sovereign subject of preparation, responsibility of school for quality of its preparation. The domestic and world culture has to make the main content of preparation. The higher education institution and school have to have uniform educational space.
Have to be the most important principles of reforming of pedagogical education: a frontage to universal values, a frontage to pedagogical culture, a frontage to children, school, a frontage to identity, creative potential of the pupil.
System of disciplines and levels of preparation. Taking into account need of assimilation by pupils of the designated components of culture the adequate nomenclature of disciplines is defined: culture bases; activity and communication.